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Early Islamic Rule (Arabia, Iraq, Persia)10000
Prophet Muḥammad’s Time, d. 11 / 63200000
The Sunnī Rightly Guided 4 Caliphs (al-Khulafāʾ al-Rāshidūn), 11-40 / 632-66100000
The 12 Shīʿī Imāms, 35-mid 4th c. / 656-mid 10th c.00000
Umayyads00000
Umayyad East (Iraq, Syria, Arabian Peninsula), 41-132 / 661-75010000
Umayyad West (Iberian Peninsula, except the north), 138-422 / 756-103110200
ʿAbbāsids50000
Caliphs in Iraq, 132-656 / 749-125810000
Caliphs in Cairo, 659-923 / 1261-151700000
Sultans in Egypt & Syria, 254-692 / 868-157110000
Ṭūlūnids (Egypt, Syria), 254-292 / 868-90500000
Ikhshidids (Egypt, S Syria), 323-358 / 935-96910000
Fāṭimids (N Africa, Egypt, S Syria), 297-567 / 909-117100000
Mirdasids (N & Central Syria), 415-472 / 1024-108000000
Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs (W Syria), ca. 493-669 / ca. 1100-127100000
Ayyūbids (Egypt, Syria, Diyār Bakr, W Jazīra, Yemen), 564-late 9th c. / 1169-late 15th c.00000
Mamlūks (Egypt, Syria), 648-692 / 1250-151700000
Subsequent Empires & Eras by Region00000
North Africa & Iberian Peninsula, 161-1389 / 778-196900000
Idrīsids (Morocco), 172-375 / 789-98500000
Rustamids (Algeria), 161-296 / 778-90900000
Midrarids (Morocco), 208-366 / 823-97700000
Aghlabids (Ifrīqiya, Algeria, Sicily), 184-296 / 800-90000000
The Kalbids (Sicily), 337-445 / 948-105300000
Zirids & Hammādids (Tunisia, E Algeria), 361-547 / 972-115200000
Almoravids or al-Murābiṭūn (NW Africa, Spain), 454-541 / 1062-114710000
Almohads or al-Muwaḥiddūn (N Africa, Spain), 524-668 / 1130-126910000
Mulūk al-Ṭawāʾif/Reyes de Taifas (Central & Southern Spain), early 7th-early 9th c. / early 11th-early 13th c.00000
Banū Ghāniya (Balearic Islands), 520-599 / 1126-120300000
Naṣrids or Banū al-Aḥmar (Granada), 629-897 / 1232-149200000
Marīnids (N Africa), 614-869 / 1217-146500000
ʿAbd al-Wādids or Zayyānids (Algeria), 633-962 / 1235-155400000
Hafsids (Tunisia, Algeria), 627-982 / 1229-157400000
Wattāsids (Morocco, Central Maghrib), 832-946 / 1428-154900000
Saʿdid Sharīfs (Morocco), 916-1069 / 1510-165900000
ʿAlawid or Filalī Sharīfs (Morocco), 1041- / 1631-00000
Husaynid Beys (Tunisia), 1117-1376 / 1705-195700000
The Qaramanlīs (Tripolitania), 1123-1251 / 1711-183500000
Sanūsī Chiefs an Rulers (Sudan, Libya), 1253-1389 / 1837-196900000
Iraq, Jazīra, Lebanon, 293-1257 / 906-184200000
Hamdānids (Jazīra, N. Syria), 293-394 / 906-100400000
Mazyadids (Ḥilla, Central Iraq), ca. 350-ca. 545 / ca. 961-ca. 115000000
Marwānids (Diyār Bakr), 372-478 / 983-108500000
The ʿUqaylids (Iraq, Jazīra, N Syria), ca. 380-564 / ca. 990-116900000
Numayrids (Ḥarrān, Sarūj, Qalʿat Jaʿbar, Raqqa), 380-ca. 474 / 990-ca. 108100000
Maʾn Amīrs (S Lebanon), 10th c.-1109 / 16th c.-169700000
Shihāb Amīrs (Lebanon), 1109-1257 / 1697-184200000
Arabian Peninsula, 1st c.- / 7th c.-00000
Carmathian (Qarmaṭī) Rulers (Syria, Iraq, E Arabia), ca. 273-470 / ca. 886-107800000
Zaydī Imāms (Yemen: Ṣaʿda, Ṣanʿāʾ), 284-1382 / 897-196200000
Ziyādids (Yemen: Zabīd), 203-409 / 818-101800000
Yuʿfirids (Yemen: Ṣanʿāʾ, Janad), 232-387 / 847-99700000
Najāhids (Yemen: Zabīd), 412-553 / 1022-115800000
Ṣulayhids (Yemen: Ṣanʿāʾ, Dhū Jibla), 439-532 / 1047-113800000
Zurayʿids or Banū ʾl-Karam (S Yemen: Aden), 473-571 / 1080-117500000
Hamdānids (N Yemen: Ṣanʿāʾ), 492-570 / 1099-117400000
Mahdids (Yemen: Zabīd), 554-569 / 1159-117300000
Rasūlids (S Yemen, Tihāma: Taʿizz), 626-858 / 1228-145400000
Ṭāhirds (S Yemen, Tihāma: al-Miqrāna, Juban), 858-923 / 1454-151700000
Āl al-Julanda (Oman), 1st c.-2nd c. / 7th c.-8th c.00000
Mukramids (Coastal Oman), ca. 390-443 / ca. 1000-104000000
Yaʿrubids (Oman: Rustāq), 1034-1156 / 1625-174300000
Āl Bū Saʿīd (Oman: Muscat; Zanzibar), ca. 1167- / ca. 1754-00000
Āl Saʿūd (Najd, Ḥijāz, modern Saudi Arabia), 1148- / 1735-00000
Hāshimite Sharīfs (Mecca, Ḥijāz, Fertile Crescent), 1253-1344 / 1827-192500000
Āl Rashīd (N Najd), 1252-1340 / 1836-192100000
West Africa, ca. 3rd c.- / ca. 9th c.-00000
Keita Kings (Mali, N Guinea, Gambia, Senegal), early 7th c.-mid 9th c. / early 13th c.-mid 15th c.00000
Kings of Songhay (Mali: Savannah Zone), ca. 3rd c.-1000 / ca. 9th c.-159200000
Rulers of Kanem & Bornu (E-Central Sudan), ca. 3rd c- / ca. 9th c.-00000
Fulānī Rulers in Hausaland, Sokoto (N Nigeria, Niger Valley), 1218- / 1804-00000
East Africa & Horn of Africa, 301-1383 / 901-196400000
Sultans of Kilwa (Tanzanian coastland), ca. 4th c.-ca. 957 / ca. 10th c.-ca. 155000000
Nabhānī Rulers of Pate (Island of Pate, modern Kenyan coastland), 600-1312 / 1203-189400000
Mazrūʿī Liwalis of Mombasa (Mobasa, Pemba Island), ca. 1109-1253 / ca. 1698-183700000
Āl Bū Saʿīd (Zanzibar & E Africa coastland), 1256-1383 / 1840-196400000
Sultans of Harar (SE Ethiopia), 912-1304 / 1506-188700000
Western Persia, Central Asia & the Fertile Crescent, ca. 19-early 11th c. / ca. 640-early 17th c.00000
Sharwan Shāhs (E Transcaucasia: Yazīdiyya), 183-early 11th c. / 799-early 17th c.00000
Hāshimids (Bāb Abwāb/Darband and its hinterland), 255-468 / 869-107500000
Justānids (Daylam: Rūdbār-Shāh Rūd valleys), late 2nd c.-5th c. / late 8th c.-11th c.00000
Sājids (Azerbaijan), 276-312 / 889-92900000
Musāfirids or Sallārids (Daylam: Ṭārum and Samīran; Azerbaijan; Arrān), before 304-ca. 483 / before 916-ca. 109000000
Rawwādids (Azerbaijan: Tabrīz), early 4th c.-463 / early 10th c.-107100000
Shāddādids (Arrān, E. Armenia), ca. 340-570 / ca. 951-117400000
Dulafids (Central Jibāl: Karaj), early 3rd c.-284 / early 9th c.-89700000
Būyids or Buwayhids (N, W, S Persia; Iraq), 320-454 / 932-106210000
Ḥasanūyids or Ḥasanawayhid (S Kurdistan), ca. 350-406 / ca. 961-101500000
ʿAnnāzids (S Kurdistan, Luristān), 381-late 6th c. / 991-late 12th c.00000
Kākūyids or Kākawayhids (Jibāl & Kurdistan), ca. 398-443 / ca. 1008-51; feudatories of Seljuqs until mid 6th/mid 12th c.00000
Dābūyid Ispahbadhs (Gīlān; Rūyān, Ṭabaristān coastlands: Sārī), ca. 19-144 / ca. 640-76100000
Bāwandid Ispahbadhs (Ṭabaristan, Gīlān highlands), 45-750 / 665-134900000
Ziyārids (Ṭabaristan, Gurgān), 319-ca. 483 / 931-ca. 109000000
Seljuqs (Persia, Iraq, Syria), 431-590 / 1040-119400000
Börids or Būrids (Damascus, S Syria), 497-549 / 1104-115400000
Zangids (Jazīra & Syria), 521-649 / 1127-125100000
Begtiginids (NE Iraq, Kurdistan: Irbīl; N Syria: Ḥarrān), before 529-630 / before 1145-123300000
Luʾluʾids (Mosul & Jazīra), 631-660 / 1234-126200000
Artuqids (Diyār Bakr), ca. 494-812 / ca. 1101-140900000
Shāh-i Armanids (E Anatolia: Akhlāṭ), 493-604 / 1100-120700000
Aḥmadīlīs (Azerbaijan: Marāgha, Rūʾīn Diz), ca. 516-after 617 / ca. 1122-after 122000000
Eldigüzids or Ildegizids (Azerbaijan, Arrān, N Jibāl), ca. 540-622 / ca. 1145-122500000
Bādūspānis (Caspian coastlands: Rūyan, Rustamdār), ca. 493-10th c. / ca. 1100-16th c.00000
Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs in Persia (Persian mountainous regions Alamūt), 483-654 / 1090-125600000
Hazāraspids (Luristān), 543-847 / 1148-142400000
Salghurids (Fars), 543-681 / 1148-125200000
Atabegs (Yazd), ca. 536-696 / ca. 1141-129700000
Qutlughkhānids (Kirmān), 619-706 / 1222-130700000
Maliks of Nīmrūz (Sīstān), 421-ca. 949 / 1030-ca. 154200000
Eastern Persia, Central Asia & the Fertile Crescent, 204-609 / 819-121200000
Ṭāhirids & Muṣʿabids (Khurāsān, Iraq: Baghdad), 205-278 / 821-89100000
Sāmānids (Transoxania, Khurāsān), 204-395 / 819-100500000
Ṣaffārids (Sīstān, Persia, E Afghanistan), 247-393 / 861-100300000
Bānījūrids or Abū Dāwūddids (Balkh, Ṭukhāristān), ca. 233-ca. 295 / ca. 848-ca. 90800000
Sīmjūrids (Khurāsān, Quhistān), 300-392 / 913-100200000
Ilyāsids (Kirman), 320-357 / 932-96800000
Muḥtājids (Khurāsān, Chaghāniyān), 321-343 / 933-95400000
Khwārazm Shāhs (Khwārazm), pre-Islamic times-7th c. / 13th c.00000
Qarakhānids (Transoxania, Farghāna, Semirechye, E Turkestan), 382-609 / 992-121210000
Persia: After the Mongols, 643-1398 / 1245-197900000
Karts or Kurts (E Khurāsān, N Afghanistan), 643-791 / 1245-138900000
Muẓaffarids (S, W Persia), 713-795 / 1314-139300000
Injuʾids (Fars), ca. 725-754 / ca. 1325-135300000
Jalāyrids (Iraq, Kurdistan, Azerbaijan), 740-835 / 1340-143200000
Sarbadārids (W Khurāsān), 737-788 / 1337-138600000
Tīmūrids (Transoxania, Persia), 771-913 / 1370-150700000
Qara Qoyunlu (E Anatolia, Azerbaijan, Iraq, W Persia), 752-874 / 1351-146900000
Aq Qoyunlu (Diyār Bakr, E Anatolia, Azerbaijan, W. Persia, Fars, Kirman), 798-914 / 1396-150800000
Mushaʾshaʾids (SW Persia: ʿArabistān), 839-1342 / 1435-192400000
Ṣafavids (Persia), 907-1135 / 1501-172200000
Afshārids (Persia), 1148-1210 / 1736-179400000
Zands (Persia, except Khurāsān), 1164-1209 / 1751-179400000
Qājārs (Persia), 1193-1344 / 1779-192500000
Pahlavīs (Persia), 1344-1398 / 1925-197900000
Anatolia, 473-1342 / 707-192400000
Seljuqs of Rūm (W-Central Anatolia: Konya; most of Anatolia), 473-707 / 1081-130700000
Dānishmendids (N-Central Anatolia; E Anatolia), before 490-573 / before 1097-117800000
Mengüjekids (N Anatolia: Erzincan, Divriği, Kemakh), before 512-mid 7th c. / before 1118-mid 13th c.00000
Saltuqis (E Anatollia: Erzurum), late 5th c.-598 / late 11th c.-120100000
Qarasī or Karasī Oghullarï (SW Anatolia), ca. 696-ca. 761 / ca. 1297-ca. 136000000
Ṣarukhān Oghullarï (W Anatolia), ca. 713-813 / ca. 1313-141000000
Aydïn Oghullari (W Anatolia), 708-829 / 1308-142600000
Menteshe Oghullarï (SW Anatolia), late 7th c.-847 / late 13th c.-142400000
Inanj Oghullarï (SW Anatolia: Deñizli), 659-769 / 1261-136900000
Germiyān Oghullari (W Anatolia), by 699-832 / by 1299-142800000
Ṣāḥib Atā Oghullarï (W-Central Anatolia), ca. 670-ca. 742 / ca. 1271-ca. 134100000
Ḥamīd Oghullarï & Tekke Oghullarï (W-Central Anatolia, SW coastland), ca. 700-826 / ca. 1301-142300000
Beys of Alanya (S Anatolia coastland), 629-876 / 1293-147100000
Ashraf or Eshref Oghullari (S-Central Anatolia), ?-726 / ?-132600000
Jāndār Oghullarï or Isfandiyār Oghullarï (Black Sea coastland), 691-866 / 1292-146200000
Parwāna Oghullarï (Black Sea coast: Sinop), 676-722 / 1277-132200000
Chobān Oghullarï (Kastamonu/Qasṭamūnī), ca. 624-ca. 708 / ca. 1227-ca. 130900000
Qaramān Oghullarï (S-Central Anatolia, Mediterranean coastland), ca. 654-880 / ca. 1256-147500000
Eretna Oghullarï (NE Anatolia), 736-782 / 1336-138000000
Qāḍī Burhān al-Dīn Oghullarï (NE Anatolia), 783-800 / 1381-139800000
Tāj al-Dīn Oghullarï (Black Sea Coast hinterland: Canik/Jānīk), ca. 749-831 / ca. 1348-142800000
Ramaḍan Oghullarï (Cilicia, Little Armenia), ca. 780-1017 / ca. 1378-160800000
Dulghadïr Oghullarï or Dhū ʾl-Qadrids (SE Anatolia), 738-928 / 1337-152100000
Ottomans (NW Anatolia, Balkans, MENA, Eritrea), late 7th c.-1342 / late 13th c.-192430000
Central Asia, Far East & Eastern Europe, 602-1208 / 1206-179200000
Mongols & the later Yüan Dynasty of China (Mongolia, China), 602-1043 / 1206-163400000
Chaghatayids (Transoxania; Mogholistan: Semirechye, E Turkestan), 624-764 / 1227-136300000
Il Khānids (Persia, Iraq, E & Central Anatolia), 654-754 / 1256-135300000
Khāns of the Golden Horde (W Siberia, Khwārazm, S Russia), 624-907 / 1227-150200000
Giray Khāns (Crimea, S Ukraine), 853-1208 / 1449-179200000
Khāns of Astrakhān (Lower Volga & adjacent steppelands), 871-964 / 1466-155700000
Khāns of Qāzān (Middle Volga), 840-959 / 1437-155200000
Khāns of Qāsimov (Ryazan to SE of Moscow), ca. 856-1092 / ca. 1452-168100000
Central Asia & Afghanistan: After the Mongols, 906-1339 / 1500-192000000
Shïbānids (or Shaybānids) or Abū ʾl-Khayrids (Transoxania, N Afghanistan), 906-1007 / 1500-159900000
Toqay Temürids or Jānids or Ashtarkhānids (Transoxania, N Afghanistan), 1007-1160 / 1599-174700000
Mangïts (Khanate of Bukhārā), 1166-1339 / 1753-192000000
Qungrats or Ïnaqids (Khanate of Khīva), 1184-1338 / 1770-192000000
Mings (Khanate of Khoqand), 1213-1293 / 1798-187600000
Indian Subcontinent & Afghanistan, 366-1393 / 977-197300000
Ghaznavids (Afghanistan, Khurāsān, Baluchistan, NW India), 366-582 / 977-118600000
Ghūrids (Ghūr, Khurāsān, NW India), early 5th c.-612 / early 11th c.-121500000
Delhi Sultans (N India, N Deccan), 602-962 / 1206-155500000
Sultans of Bengal (Bengal, Bihār), 594-984 / 1198-157600000
Sultans of Kashmir (Kashmir), 739-996 / 1339-158800000
Sultans of Gujarāt (W India), 806-980 / 1403-157300000
Sharqī Sultans of Jawnpur (E-Central, N India), 796-888 / 1394-148300000
Sultans & Rulers of Mālwa (Central India), 804-969 / 1402-156200000
Sultans of Maʿbar or Madura (S Deccan), 734-779 / 1334-137700000
Bahmanids (N Deccan), 748-934 / 1347-152800000
Fārūqī Rulers of Khāndesh (NW Deccan), ca. 784-1009 / ca. 1382-160100000
Barīd Shāhīs (Bīdar), ca. 892-1028 / ca. 1487-161900000
ʿĀdil Shāhīs (Bījapur), 895-1097 / 1490-168600000
Niẓām Shāhīs (Aḥmadnagar), 895-1046 / 1490-163600000
ʿImād Shāhīs (Berār), 896-982 / 1491-157400000
Quṭb Shāhīs (Golconda-Muḥammadnagar), 901-1098 / 1496-168700000
Arghūns (Multan & Sind), 926-999 / 1520-159100000
Mughal Emperors (India), 932-1274 / 1526-185800000
Nawwāb-Viziers & Nawwāb-Nāẓims (Bengal), 1116-1274 / 1704-185800000
Nawwāb-Viziers & Kings of Qudh (Awadh) (N India), 1134-1272 / 1722-185600000
Niẓāms of Hyderabad (S India), 1137-1367 / 1724-194800000
Muslim Rulers in Mysore (S India), 1173-1213 / 1760-179900000
Abdālī or Durrānī Rulers & Kings (Afghanistan), 1160-1393 / 1747-197300000
SE Asia & Indonesia, 7th c.- / 13th c.-00000
Rulers of Malacca (SW Coast of Malay peninsula), ca. 805-1110 / ca. 1403-169900000
Sultans of Aceh (N Sumatra), ca. 901-1321 / ca. 1496-190300000
Rulers of Mataram (Central Java), ca. 983-1168 / ca. 1575-175500000
Susuhanans of Surakarta (Central Java), 1168-1368 / 1755-194900000
Sultans of Jogjakarta (S-Central Java), 1168-1368 / 1755-194900000
Sultans of Brunei (N Borneo), 7th c.- / 13th c.-00000
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