Country Profile: Equatorial Guinea

This Country Profile provides a basic overview of the legal history and institutional structures of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee Equatoriale), based on research produced by the Library of Congress. Under Equatorial Guinea's Constitution, Islamic law (sharīʿa or fiqh) has no legal status. 

Country Background

Equatorial Guinea is a country located in Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra. It is bounded by Cameroon, Gabon, Nigeria, and Sao Tome and Principe. The capital of Equatorial Guinea is Malabo, which is on the island of Bioko. The official languages are Spanish and French. The country's population in 2017 was 778,358. Equatorial Guinea is a predominantly Christian country.

Constitution & Legal Structure

Equatorial Guinea is referred to as a presidential republic, in which sovereignty belongs to the people and the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. The current Constitution of Equatorial Guinea was adopted in 1991, and was most recently amended in 2012. The system of government is based on principles of separation and checks and balances and has three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legal system of Equatorial Guinea is a mixed legal system, with civil and customary law influences. 

Constitutional Status of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no constitutional status in Equatorial Guinea. 

Jurisdiction(s) of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no official jurisdiction of operation in Equatorial Guinea. 

Dominant School of Islamic Law

Equatorial Guinea has no official school of Islamic law. 

Sources of Law for Legal Research

Official Publications

Unofficial Databases


For an extended list of legal resources for this country, see the Library of Congress’s Research Guide. The Constitution is available in the LOC Guide in its original language and at Constitute in English translation. For full versions of past constitutions, amendments, and related legislation, see HeinOnline World Constitutions Illustrated or Oxford Constitutions of the World [subscription required for each].