al-Sunan al-kubrā

This is one of many sources in which Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 241/855) and many others including companion Abū Mūsā al-Ashʿarī (d. between 42 and 53/662–73) echo the criteria forwarded by al-Shāfiʿī for determining the credibility of witness. However, these sources slightly diverge in permitting non-Muslims to testify in the specific case regarding the last wishes of a Muslim who dies while traveling, a scenario explicitly condoned in Q. 5:106.

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