Taḥrīr al-Wasīla

In this source, Ayatollah Khomeini seconds the opinion of many Shīʿite jurists in a matter of judicial procedure: permitting the judges to rule according to their personal knowledge of a case. Hossein Modarressi comments that knowledge in this context was generally understood to mean instances in which the judge had personally witnessed an event occur. Some jurists also distinguish between knowledge acquired by the senses (ʿilm ḥissī) and knowledge acquired by "guessing" (ʿilm ḥadsī), which perhaps includes circumstantial evidence .

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