Country Profile: Mongolia

This Country Profile provides a basic overview of the legal history and institutional structures of Mongolia (Mongol Uls), based on research produced by GlobaLex at NYU Law School and the Library of Congress. Under Mongolia's Constitution, Islamic law (sharīʿa or fiqh) has no legal status. 

Country Background

Mongolia is a landlocked country located in northern East Asia. It is bounded by China, Kazakhstan, and Russia. The capital of Mongolia is Ulaanbaatar. The official language is Mongolian. The country's population in 2017 was approximately 3.1 million. Mongolia is a predominantly Buddhist country, with about 53% of the population Buddhist and 39% not having any religious affiliation. Islam is a minority religion in Mongolia, and Muslims make up about 3% of the country's population. The majority of Muslims in Mongolia are part of the country's Kazakh ethnic minority. 

Constitution & Legal Structure

After the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared its independence from China, beginning the Mongolian Revolution. Ten years later, in 1921, Mongolia gained its independence from China and set up a communist regime with close ties to Russia. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 strongly influenced Mongolian politics and youth, and in 1990 the Mongolian people peacefully abolished the totalitarian regime, beginning a gradual but comprehensive transition toward a new multi-party system and a market economy. 

At present, Mongolia is referred to as a presidential republic, in which sovereignty belongs to the people and the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. The Constitution was adopted in 1992, and was most recently amended in 2002 to regulate the Mongolian military's participation in UN peacekeeping and international missions. The Mongolian system of government is based on principles of separation and checks and balances and has three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legal system of Mongolia is a civil law system influenced by both Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems. It is also heavily influenced by the customary norms of Mongolia's nomadic tradition. 

Constitutional Status of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no constitutional status in Mongolia. 

Jurisdiction(s) of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no official jurisdiction of operation in Mongolia. 

Dominant School of Islamic Law

Mongolia has no official school of Islamic law.

Sources of Law for Legal Research

Official Publications

Unofficial Databases


For an extended list of legal resources for this country, see the Library of Congress’s Research Guide, and for a narrative review, see the GlobaLex Foreign Law Research Guide (most updated version, where available). The Constitution is available in the LOC Guide in its original language and at Constitute in English translation. For full versions of past constitutions, amendments, and related legislation, see HeinOnline World Constitutions Illustrated or Oxford Constitutions of the World [subscription required for each].