Country Profile: Bulgaria

This Country Profile provides a basic overview of the legal history and institutional structures of the Republic of Bulgaria (Republika Bulgaria), based on research produced by GlobaLex at NYU Law School and the Library of Congress. Under Bulgaria’s Constitution, Islamic law (sharīʿa or fiqh) has no legal status.

Country Background

Bulgaria is located in Southeastern Europe. It is named after the Bulgar tribes who settled the lower Balkan region in the 7th century A.D. Bulgaria is bounded by Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Turkey. The capital of Bulgaria is Sofia. The official language is Bulgarian. The country’s population in 2016 was approximately 7.1 million. Bulgaria is a predominantly Christian country, with about 59% of the population Eastern Orthodox. Islam is a minority religion in Bulgaria, and Muslims make up about 8% of the country's population.

Constitution & Legal Structure

Bulgaria is referred to as a parliamentary republic, in which sovereignty belongs to the people and the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, adopted by popular referendum in 1998. The system of government is civil law based on principles of separation and checks and balances and has three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Bulgaria is a member state of the European Union.

Constitutional Status of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no constitutional status in Bulgaria.

Jurisdiction(s) of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no official jurisdiction of operation in Bulgaria.

Dominant School of Islamic Law

Bulgaria has no official school of Islamic law. 

Sources of Law for Legal Research

Official Publications

 Unofficial Databases


For an extended list of legal resources for this country, see the Library of Congress’s Research Guide, and for a narrative review, see the GlobaLex Foreign Law Research Guide (most updated version, where available). The Constitution is available in the LOC Guide in its original language and at Constitute in English translation. For full versions of past constitutions, amendments, and related legislation, see HeinOnline World Constitutions Illustrated or Oxford Constitutions of the World [subscription required for each].