Country Profile: Belgium

This Country Profile provides a basic overview of the legal history and institutional structures of the Kingdom of Belgium (Royaume de Belgique [French]/Koninkrijk Belgie [Dutch]/Koenigreich Belgien [German]), based on research produced by GlobaLex at NYU Law School and the Library of Congress. Under Belgium’s Constitution, Islamic law (sharīʿa or fiqh) has no legal status.

Country Background

Belgium is located in Western Europe. It is bounded by France, Germany, Luxembourg, and Netherlands. The capital of Belgium is Brussels. The official languages are Dutch, French, and German. The country’s population in 2016 was approximately 11.4 million. Belgium is a predominantly Christian country, with about 75% of the population Roman Catholic.

Constitution & Legal Structure

Belgium is referred to as a federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy. Belgium is a civil law system based on the French Civil Code with judicial review of legislative acts. Belgium is a member state of the European Union.

Constitutional Status of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no constitutional status in Belgium.

Jurisdiction(s) of Islamic Law

Islamic law has no official jurisdiction of operation in Belgium.

Dominant School of Islamic Law

Belgium has no official school of Islamic law. 

Sources of Law for Legal Research

Official Publications

 Unofficial Databases


For an extended list of legal resources for this country, see the Library of Congress’s Research Guide, and for a narrative review, see the GlobaLex Foreign Law Research Guide (most updated version, where available). The Constitution is available in the LOC Guide in its original language and at Constitute in English and Arabic translation. For full versions of past constitutions, amendments, and related legislation, see HeinOnline World Constitutions Illustrated or Oxford Constitutions of the World [subscription required for each].