The parties were married on 28 April 2005 at the second applicant's parents' home. The second applicant's father had acted as the marriage guardian (wali), the parties' oral declaration (ijab) had been witnessed by a celebrant (penghulu nikah), two other witnesses were present, and the dowry (mas kawin) had been a IDR 20,000. At the time of the marriage the first applicant was 25 years of age, and the second applicant was 19 years. There were no bars to their marriage under Islam, and the parties already had two children. The applicants required their marriage to be ratified so that they could obtain a marriage certificate from the local Office of Religious Affairs, as well as birth certificates for their children. As the applicants had failed to attend court, however, the sole judge ruled a miscarriage.